they absorb tbr i
rms, shoulders, neck. Ami it i
wjt your hands soft, smooth,
for the strength-diluting tendencies of extra leading and
tint backgrounds (Ben Day or color) and for the dark
ening influence of texts that cast tight.
The Fourth Dimension: Layout SignificanceThere
should always exist a balanced compositional kinship
among the elements that comprise the finished adver
tisement. The illustration is one element, a major one,
the headline, signature, trade-mark are other elements,
and woven with them, a part of their very fabric,
treated as a distinct unit in the over-all pattern, is still
another element: the typographic mass. The ultimate
grouping of these inter-related units in one unified
whole rhythmical, alive, cohesive is the finished
layout and the intangible influence which typography
exerts on this finished layout is typography s fourth
Since the fourth dimension is so closely linked with
abstract layout, the next step is to classify all adver
tisements by layout and consider typography's fourth
dimensional application to each classification. I suallv
the largest and most dramatic element in an advertise
ment is the illustration. Because of its importance in
the general scheme of arrangement, it is advisable to
build the categorization around this element. In their
least-common-denominator forms, therefore, the layout
divisions are: (1) layout with illustration of silhouette
character, including specific silhouettes like shapes ol
objects, stars, crescents, etc. (2) layout with illustra
tion of block shape: geometric (triangle, square, rec
tangle, pentagon, circle, etc.). (3) layout without
illustration: all-type arrangements.
Layout Classification One—The silhouette shape of
the illustration presupposes surrounding white space.
To obtain a decided contrast of major shapes, the
typographic mass should be planned in regidar block
patterns. If there is a typographic headline, it should
be kept compact and solid and so placed as to have
its line of direction at an angle with the illustration
but generally pointing to it. The exact location of the
silhouette illustration will dictate the proportions of
the blocked typographic mass, whether it should be a
long narrow column, a squat rectangle, and so on. Yn
unusual blocked shape, like a triangular text, is em
ployed as a general rule only when there is a corre
spondingly triangular feeling in the illustration, or a
total absence of such a feeling. In cases where the
typography does follow the silhouette lines of the illus
tration, the typographic mass should he blocked on
the remaining three sides for retention of full legibility.
Layout Classification TwoIt is seldom wise to re
verse the rule of Number One for layouts with blocked
illustrations. Such reversal generally results in jumpy,
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