a itoebíttm of ¡éppreoíoíon ín *j|>oetrp Bettterfetmgen 5» Den fytet abgebílüeten Betfptelcn 168 tun hat, sondern eine klangliche ZusammenschlieBung desV ersganzen bewirken solí, oder dieMittelachsenstellung in Arno Holz' Gedichtwerk „Phantasus", die der Dichter theoretisch ausführlich begründet hat. Aber sie sind vom einzelnen Autor für das einzelne Werk genau festgelegt und so tiefgreifend, daB sie dem Bereich des schopferb schen Künstlers vorbehalten sind. Aus der Tatsache jedoch, daB selbst groBe Dichter die Inanspruchnahme typographischer Ausdrucksformen nicht verschmahen, leiten wir ihre innere Berechtigung ab. cFortsetzung folgt) Beispiel 1das aus derVerfallzeit nach dem. Kriege stammt, zeigt eine Überbetonung der Ausdruckskomponente, welche eine vollige Auflosung des Satzspiegels und uní harmonische Gesamtwirkung zur Folge hat. In Beispiel 2 und 3 tritt die ásthetische Komponente stark hervor, doch wird dies, zum mindesten bei dem Gedicht von Stefan George, nicht von áuBerlichen, formabasthetischen Fak* toren bestimmt, sondern von der inneren, geistig*seelischen Einstellung desDichters. Eine vollige Harmonie von Sinn* gehalt und Schrift und eine wirksame Unterstützung des irrationalen Gehaltes der Dichtung durch das Wortbild zeichnen die Beispiele4 und j aus, die einer Volkslieder* sammlung in der „Claudius" und einer Sammlung alt< und mittelhochdeutscherDichtungen in der„Wallau" von Rm dolf Koch entnommen sind. In Beispiel 6 sehen wir eine Seite aus dem „Phantasus". Die Mittelachsenstellung der Gedichte solí nach derTheorie von Arno Holz. die sinnliclu klangliche Einheit und die beherrschende Stellung des Rhythmus zum Ausdruck bringen. By Dr. Karl Kleram Doch uns ist gegeben, Auf keiner Statte zu ruhn, Es schwinden, es fallen Die leidenden Menschen Blindlings von einer Stunde zur andern, Wie Wasser von Klippe Zu Klippe geworfen, Jahrlang ins Ungewisse hinab. Like in any genuine poetry, the Germán poet Holderlin expresses in these verses his innermost feelings in words which are the specific media of the poet. Yet, the peculiar arrangement of the lines, (which were already shaped in this way in the first edition of the "Hyperion" in 1799b rivets the reader's attention! Here, a typographic, optical, nay even unpoetical médium sustains most efíectively the signification of these words and enhances essentially their appreciation. In fact, the indented form of the lines conveys very impressively the idea of declining and dwindling away though unknown to the reader's mind. This is, thus, a remarkable paragon show* I. ing how a composition is in its form is determined "from within" and how typo< graphy can be helpful for poetry. Very often, however, - also in this present case - the compositor cannot interpret the poet's thoughts in that way on his own, but is held to follow the directions given by the author. Nevertheless, and not at all in< frequently, the typographer has the pos» sibilty of emphacising the tendeney of ex* pression by media of his own, or and this is perhaps more important still - of not spoiling the poet's tendencies by in> adequately applied media. Many an author justly fears such inadequacies and rather foregoes the adoption of these unusual means of expression for his works. The principie against the tendeney of ex* pression is the "aesthetic pretensión", as Rainer Maria Rilke called it once in his critique of the typographic arrangement of a juvenile book. Formal aestheticism is at all times in contest with the volitive faculty of expression so that a reconciliation of the two principies is imperatively neces* sary, as the following example will ¡Ilústrate more clearly and distinctly. - Just imagine that a particularly dramatic passage in a romance or in a poem be set in diíferent» sized types and different characters, too, i. e. the calm passages in Small Pica, ex< clamations in twodme Brevier, imbetween emphacised passages mediumTaced, words falteringly pronounced being expressed by spaces in the line, pauses in the con< versation by blank spaces in the com< position, Ííc. No doubt, the eifect on the reader would be very impressive indeed, yet the whole composition would be anythí ing but uniform in its appearance and look ugly and non artistical. On the other hand, aesthetic components may be exaggerated by entirely uniform, or perhaps too closely spaced lines or by the use of artistic, but absolutely inadequate types, £íc., and all this to such an extent that the entirety of the composition produces a cool and im< personal impression. 1 his would also be very detrimental to the poetical work and deprecíate its valué and appeal. What is, thus, actually needed is to find out those media that do not in any way abate the aethetic valué of the work, but which are all the same apt to express, within the

Archiv für Buchgewerbe und Gebrauchsgraphik de | 1938 | | page 8