beyond crossing a certain limit, originality becomes a fault. Advertising agencies have an adverse effect on the artistic ambitions of graphic artists. Visual communication, not only in advertising, is sometimes a command and sometimes prohi bition. The history of our century has shown that the masses readily obey orders. The indi vidual should have a greater awareness of his freedom of choice, his responsibility. Those whose work is connected with visual communi cation should have a critical approach both to the client who commissions the design, and to the spectator who receives its message. ALEKSANDER WALLIS Polska Poland Dr Aleksander Wallis, socjolog, pracownik Insty- tutu Sztuki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, autor publi- kacji: „Artysci plastycy, zawód i stanowisko" oraz „Socjologia wielkiego miasta", w referacie „Symbole miast w miejskiej kulturze" zwrócif uwagq na fakt, ze miasto jest wielkim siedliskiem róznego rodzaju symboli. Niektóre z nich nie wykraczajq poza obrqb dzielnicy, inne nielicz- ne majq zasiqg ponadlokalny (jak np.gmachy— ratusze, konstrukcje wieza Eiffla, sygnaty radiostacji, niektóre piosenki). Istniejq równiez miasta symbole (np.: Mekka miasto upragnio- ne, Rzym - miasto swiqte), a w stosunku do pewnych zespotów miejskich uzywa siq symbo- licznych porównan (np.: tódz polski Man chester, San Francisco amerykahski Paryz). W zakonczeniu wypowiedzi mówca stwierdzif, ze: „Czqsto tworzeniu nowych symboli towarzy- szy niszczenie poprzednich. Mozliwosc rozumie- nia symboli jest funkcjq pewnego quantum wiedzy, które moze bye przekazane jednostce w procesie wychowania. Symbole wiqzq siq ze stereotypami, ale symbole wzbogacaj^ naszq kulturq i ufatwiajq porozumienie. Stereotypy natomiast narzucajq nam schematyczne wyobrazenia i uproszczenia. Tworzenie symboli jest pewnq formq twórezosei intelektualnej i artystycznej." Dr Aleksander Wallis, sociologist, of the Institute of Art of the Polish Academy of Sciences, author of the following publications: "Plastic Artists, Their Profession and Status" and "The Sociology of a Large City", delivered a report entitled "Symbols of Cities in the Urban Culture" in which he pointed out that the city was a great amalgamation of various kinds of symbols. Some of them do not exceed the boundaries of a given district, others, which are not numerous, have a more than local field of action (e.g. buildings: town halls, constructions: the Eiffel Tower, Tower, broadcasting station signals, some popu lar songs). There are also symbol-cities (e.g. Mec ca the city of pilgrimage, Rome the Holy City), while with regard to some urban centres symbolic comparisons are used (e.g. tódz the Polish Manchester, San Francisco the American Paris). In conclusion, the speaker stated: "Frequently the creation of new symbols is accompanied by the destruction of previous ones. The possibility of understanding symbols is a function of a certain quantum of knowledge which the individual can acquire in the course of his education. Symbols are connected with stereotypes, but they enrich our culture and facilitate communication. Stereotypes, on the other hand, impose upon us schematic concepts and simplifications. The creation of symbols is a form of intellectual and artistic creation."

Biennale Plakatu Warszawa | 1966 | | page 124