1 Schüt^enscheibe, I S.Jahrhtindert, Heimatmuseum Kronach 1 Schüt^enscheibe17 J}, Heimatmuseum Tittmoning 3 Schatrenscheibe, 1. Hiilfte des 1 p.Jahrhunderts, Carolino Augusteum Salzburg 4 Schüt%enscheibe1880, Biirgerportrdts mit Trefferauswertungsapparat Heimatmuseum Schwab ach 5, 6 Humorvolle Schatten scheiben, 18Heimatmuseum Tittmoning guilds and associations integrated life in its entirety and incorporated both worldly and religious holidays, whose celebration was sub ject to strict rules, the painted targets introduce us to a burgher's life in the past centuries. The variety of reasons which led to the donation of a target surprises us time and againpolitical, national and family events, interest in education and above all the manifestations of popular humor which parades here in all forms, some of which would be inacceptable today. All emotions which moved mind or heart were represented on the targets. Out of this wealth of creations, some splendid target collections have been preserved by a few museums and rifle-associations, most of them in Southern Ger many, Austria and Switzerland. These com prehensive collections offer us important in sights of the social life of that time. The Baro que targets vaunt the legends and mythology of Antiquity which were revived by the Renais sance, they are resplendent with artful chrono grams (Latin dates worked into a text) with proverbs and allegories in florid Latin. From a pictorial point of view, they, like the brighter Rokoko targets, are closer to high art than the targets of the 19th cent., which tend to be popular and nai've. By the end of that century they had mostly sunk to the level of bourgeois and nationalistic trash as on the whole it must be said that in the 20th cent, we hardly any longer meet with targets remarkable for their originality - with the exception of some rustic ones. During the Rokoko playful and amorous scenes came to the fore, while the shocks of the Napoleonic Wars at the beginning of the 19th cent, and the emergence of the National States supplied many political motifs, until Mr. Bieder meier represented his respectability and con- tentedness. From their very beginnings onward, the targets were «applied art» in the best meaning of the term. In their colors and their composition they are designed around the bull's eye, and their constant harmony of picture and lettering makes them legitimate ancestors of today's commercial art. La resonance des différents styles dans I'art populaire est comparable a un écho qu'on con tinue de percevoir lorsque les créateurs ont depuis longtemps frappé de nouvelles harmo nies. Mais le folklore lui donne des nuances et des modulations d un charme suprème. La coutume qui consiste a célébrer les événements importants et a fixer une atmosphere sur des cibles peintes remonte vraisemblablement a une époque antérieure a 1600; les plus ancien nes cibles que nous possédions et qui datent de cette période témoignent déja, en effet, d'une maïtrise dans la composition sur une surface circulaire qui laisse conclure a une tradition plus ancienne. Les sociétés de tir sont les pre mières organisations bourgeoises; certaines, qui existent encore de nos jours, ont été fon- dées dès le moyen age. Ces corporations don- naient aux habitants des villes, aux bourgeois, la possibilité de se défendre contre les em- piètements des princes et de la noblesse. Le róle joué par cette protection, la fierté d'une classe sociale qui prenait conscience d'elle- 16

Gebrauchsgraphik de | 1961 | | page 24