ADVERTISING ART IN ITALY DIE GEB RAUCHS GRAPH IK IN ITALIEN L'ART PUBLICITAIRE EN ITALIE tutti leggono i periodic! Mondad Carlo D in e Ili [Deutscher Text: Seite 433] T ncredible as it may seem, there are in Italy no professional J- schools of advertising. The commercial and the fine graphic artist, and for that matter even the advertising agent, are here self-taught with the exception of the few who have had the means and the opportunity of studying abroad or of working under the direction of foreign experts. While home markets are influenced by the fluctuations of world trade and by the course of world history, it remains a fact that commerce cannot do without advertising, either for home sales or for export. Yet only thirty years ago there were precious few Italian firms and those mostly the very large concernswhich realised that advertising, to be a success, must be carefully planned and carried through on a large scale. The smaller enterprises either regarded it as a luxury or were simply unable to afford it. In the long run, however, it became clear that the big firms were flourishing while the small ones only just managed to keep above water. And the character of Italian commercial art took on a more distinct form as the recognition of this fact gradually imposed itself. [Textc frangais: page 443] The outbreak of war put a damper on the new enthusiasm and lamed the efforts made. It was now a matter of "putting it over" to the public on entirely new lines. But this too had its good points: a beginning was made in the study of the personality as such and in research into the reactions of the various sectors of the population. Everybody at that time depended on his neighbour. After the war an unexpectedly rapid development set in. Advertising became one of the pillars of reconstruction. While an enormous capital was being invested in the re-establishment of national trade, it proved necessary to back up the great pro duction efforts with equally great efforts in the advertising field. Whereas in Italy publicity campaigns on the grand scale are hardly ever launchedwhat is done in this line embodies too little planning to deserve the name of campaignmedium advertising schemes are today the rule. They include a limited number of advertisements in the daily press, a few announce ments in illustrated periodicals, possibly a poster and a series of radio transmissions. The poster is mostly regarded as an 426

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