-viaffi features and have generally been superseded by geometric signs and conventions; but before the period of accurate survey, it was by representations in elevation or perspective that the cartographer commonly depicted hills, woods and towns. Here indeed we can trace the simple and functional beginnings of landscape art. Generally, as the illustrations show, manuscript maps used a great variety of forms, while the map-engraver simplified and standardised his symbols. Before 1500 mountains might be drawn in elevation or bird's- eye view, or as overlapping sugarloaves; in later maps they are conical hummocks usually shaded on the east slopes. The representation of forests as single trees or clumps has changed little, and the distinction between coniferous and deciduous woods is found as early as the 15 th century. Towns, which in early manuscript maps are of enormous size and identified by splendidly painted banners or heraldic designs, become in the printed maps conventional clusters of buildings in elevation, graded and characterised by number and form. The surface of water features was suggested to the eye by form lines or by ingenious wave shapes, distinguishing ocean rollers from stiller enclosed watersbut the copperplate engraver was often vTHV',,- <- Z'/- t f- nor ÖA-ÏU/fcV1 Aj inpnano ven iP T>t I AS \.!i SRS!,'\ 1) South America, in the Mercator-Hondius Atlas (1606). Line-engraving; size of original 14x19 in. One of the plates added by Hondius in 1606, this represents his heavier engraving style and flourished lettering. 2) Part of a map drawn by Angelo Freducci of Ancona for an atlas comprising five sheets made in 1556. It is now in the Biblioteca ComunaleMantua. 3) Repro duction in original size of a nautical chart by J. Troadec du Conquet, from a 16th-century almanac. Woodcut printed on parchment. The lines around the compass indicator refer to the tides. 1) Südamerika aus dem Mercator-Hondius Atlas (1606). Kupferstich; Grosse des Originals: 35% X48 cm. Eine der Tafeln, die von Hondius im Jahre 1606 hin- zugefiigt wurden und die seinen schwerfalligeren Stil und seine reich dekorierte Beschriftung zeigen. - 2) Teilstiick einer Landkarte von Angelo Freducci zu Ancona, zu einem aus fünf Blattern bestehenden Atlas gehorig. Hergestellt 1556. Jetzt in der Biblioteca Comunale von Mantua. 3) Wiedergabe in Originalgrösse einer Seckarte von J. Troadec du Conquet aus einem Almanach des 16. Jh., Holz- schnitt auf Pergament abgezogen. Die Linien um die Windrose beziehen sich auf die Gezeiten. 1) L'Amériquedu Sud dans l'atlas Mercator-Hondius (1606). Eau-forte; gran deur originale 35V2 X48 cm. Cette planche, l'une de celles ajoutéesen 1606 par Hondius, représente son style de gravure le plus appuyé et sa calligraphic la plus ornée. 2) Partie d'une carte d'Angelo Freducci, Anconc, pour un atlas dc cinq feuilles composé en 1556. Actuellement a la bibliothèque municipale de Mantoue. 3) Carte nautique gravée par J. Troadec du Conquet, xylographice sur parchemin et faisant partie d'un almanach du XVIe siècle. La feuille originale mesure 7X 10 cm. Les ligncs partant de la rose des vents se réfèrcnt aux marccs. Les légendes des cartes conservées a la Bibliothèque Nationale a Paris ont été rédigées par M. M. Destombes, qui prépare un catalogue général des cartes nautiques manuscrites du XI Ve au XVI1siècle ine lus. Illustrations Nos. 1, 4, j, 11, 14, 19, 22 and 24 are reproduced by courtesy of the Staples Press Limited, London, and will appear in the revised edition of their book Decorative Printed Maps of the 15th to 18th Centuries to be published in 1932. Illustrations Nos. 6, 7, 8,9,10,13 and 23 are reproduced by courtesy of The Geographical Ma gazine, London. 40I

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