OldBond CA-DBUKf BROTHER paper wrappers and labels, glass bottles, earthenware jars, and at least one form of metal box (17). Most of the early packaged com modities were not everyday necessities but little luxuries such as tea and tobacco, sago powder and sauces. The nineteenth century, with its rising living standards for the masses, saw many technical developments which enabled the use of packaging to become more widespread. Rigid cardboard boxes were seen first in Europe, and folding cartons in the United States of America. Transfer-printing was applied to pottery (4-9) and to tins. A satisfactory method of 'direct' printing on tin by offset litho graphy was invented in the 1870's, and before 1900 all the familiar packaging materials of our own time, except Cellophane and plastics, and most of the widely used techniques of decorating or marking packages, were already known. During the nineteenth century also the initiative in package-using passed from shopkeepers to manufacturers, [Continued on page !S9] I At;,yrU/c !ljIS U KING STKBET 80s" LONDON. 6) Earthenware jar for James Atkinson's Bears Grease hair oil. c. 1834. 7) Jar for Cadbury's cocoa paste, Birmingham; used shortly after the firm's i royal appointment in 1853. 8) Crosse Blackwell earthenware chutney jar. c. 1830. 9) Crosse Blackwell paste pot with coloured lid com- j memorating the Great Exhibition of 1851. 10) 'The Greybeard' Heather Dew whisky jar of 19th century design, by Govancroft Potteries, Glasgow. 11) Soyer's relish pot, with portrait of Soyer on one of its three sides. Late 19th century. 12) Export jar for J. E. Atkinson's 'Oriental Tooth Paste'. c. i860. -13) Denton Jutsum varnish jars with applied ornament and impressed lettering. 19th century. HOrAl TOR! 6) Tontopf für eine Barenfett-Haarsalbe. C. 1834. 7) Topf für Kakao- Paste der Firma Cadbury Brothers, kurz nachdem sie zum Hoflieferanten ernannt wurde. 1853. 8) Gewürz-Topf. Um 1830. 9) Pastendose mit 1 farbigem Deckel zur Erinnerung an die Grosse Ausstellung von 1851. 10) Whisky-Behalter mit Dekoration aus dem i9.Jh. 11) Gewürzflasche mit dem Bildnis des Herstellers auf einer der drei Seiten. Spates 19.JI1. 12) Export-Dose für Zahnpasta. Um i860. 13) Lackbehalter mit eingeprag- ter Beschriftung. 19. Jh. 6) Pot en terre cuite pour une pommade k la graisse d'ours. Vers 1834. 7) Pot pour la pate de cacao de la maison Cadbury Brothers, trés peu de temps aprcs qu'elle fut devenue fournisscur de la cour. 1853. 8) Pot Pour des épices. Vers 1830. 9) Boite avec couvercle en couleur, en commémoration J de l'exposition universelle de 1851. 10) Pot k whisky, décoration du XIXe siècle. 11) Flacon d'épices, avec le portrait du fabricant sur l'une des trois faces. Fin du XIXe siècle. 12) Boite d'exportation pour pate dentifrice. Vers i860. 13) Récipicients pour vernis, caractères en creux. j XIXe siècle.

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