|ure metal work of Quimbaya or the Ivory Coast, from broad techniques in stone or wood to complicated methods of lost-wax casting and pottery firing. There is broad mass (Mississippi), and itiny detail (Benin)pleasure in a smooth surface (Mezcala), and delight in its ornamentation (Vera Cruz) pointed rhythms (Peru), and rounded ones (Cameroons)there is both extreme realism (Colima), and extreme stylization (the Sudan)and everywhere 'there is religious feeling. The intensity of the work's existence, the aura which the primitive artist succeeds in creating, has its roots in the religious and magic sentiment from which the work issues and in turn is meant to establish. Its production often involves what is called stylization, but it can exist within what we recognize as the ■greatest naturalism. In a profound cultural sense, as well as in a more obvious visual one, it is improper to speak of the 'stylization' of primitive art. At no point does the artist weigh naturalism against its op posite and make a deliberate choice of some point in between on the scale. That scale is ours, not his, and enters the picture only because we, having gathered together works of diverse origins, begin to make comparisons. For the artist of each separate culture it is the style that is the reality, or rather embodies the reality. |(Even the rare portrait, like those of early Greece, tends to be the incarnation of a type). For him, and for his audience, the question of whether anything looked as do his works is an unreal one; if they are made this way it is because they are like this. The Baga bust, the Mangareva god and the Arawak god, various as they all are in their handling of shapes and materials, inclusion of decora tion or its total absence, all possess a paradoxical combination of impersonality and the power to attract us. We are drawn to them precisely because, in some manner that escapes a more self- conscious art, they are unaware of us and totally self-sufficient. The purely ritual objects were not the only ones to function in this way. The more practical forms too (the Mexican bowl, the Iatmul canoe prow) partook of it in a mitigated fashion, and this in turn meant a symbiosis between sculpture and the useful object and an insensible merging of art and decoration. In a broad sense, the creation of this impact -which only occasionally uses conventional 'beauty' as its mediumwas the final 'usefulness' of these works of art, and without the total con text of each primitive society we can only have suggestions of its effect. We must learn what we can of all these works of art so that we may learn to look at them. But finally what we know about them can only enrich, not fundamentally alter, our penetration of the emotional meaning of what they are. 7) 'Zebra' mask. Painted cedar wood, 15" high. Baluba, Eastern Belgian Congo, Africa. 19th century. An exception to the naturalistic character of most Baluba sculpture, this 'Kifwebe' mask was worn horizontally on the head in dances on important occasions. Painted black, the incisions are filled in with kaolin or a similar white substance. 8) Janus head. Stone, high. Celtic: Roquepertuse, Var, France. 4th century B.C. 7) »Zebra«-Maske. Bemaltcs Zedernholz, 38 cm hoch. Baluba, Belgisch-Ostkongo. 19. Jh. Im Gegensatz zu dem naturalistischen Charakter der meisten Baluba- Skulpturen wurdc diese Maske horizontal auf dem Kopf bei bestimmten Tanzen getragen. Schwarze Bemalung mit Einlagen aus einer weissen Substanz. 8) Janus-Kopf. Stein, 28% cm hoch. Keltisch, Roquepertuse, Dpt. Var, Frankreich. 4. Jh. v. Chr. 7) Masque de zcbrc. Cèdre peint, 38 cm. de hauteur. Balouba, Congo beige oriental. 19e siècle. A la diffe rence du caractère naturaliste de la plupart des sculp tures baloubas, ce masque était destiné a être porté horizontalement sur la tête pendant certaines danses. Peinture noire et incrustations d'une substance blanche. 8) Tête de Janus. Pierre, 28,5 cm. de hauteur. Cel- tique, Roquepertuse (Var), France. 4e siècle av. J.-C. 531

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