Zi<c »-*-■■■ - 3 art in Eastern Anatoliaand had founded its new capital in Byzantine Iconium, the present-day Konia. This mingling of many influences was to enrich Islamic art with various unusual art-forms, and in particular with many foreign types of ornament. Islam forbids the portrayal of figures. Yet the art of the Seljuks is strikingly rich in figurative scenes, which appear even on sacred buildings. We may safely assume that these derive from early Christian, Byzantine and Central Asian models. The richness of Seljuk ornament patterns comes out best in the huge monumental portals that adorn mosques, colleges and caravanserais. These portals carry all the external decoration. Stalactite hoods in high rectangular frames, flanked by pillars, are found in all of them, whether they belong to profane or sacred buildings. A whole vocabulary of abstract ornament covers the surfaces of the portal in an interweaving, cloth-like texturestars and rosettes, arabesques formed from waving tendrils, ribbon and braid designs. These patterns are arranged in strict verticals and horizontals, in the orthogonal relationship with which we are familiar from the Seljuk script. In the first half of the thirteenth century these ornaments were cut in shallow relief in the stone. Later the flat patterns took on a marked plasticity and became almost 'baroque' in effect. Both styles are com bined most impressively in the portals of Ulu Cami, the great mosque of Divrigi, erected in 1228, which seem overflowing with ornament. The patterns are basically the same, but the stars project from the wall and the scroll arabesques interlace to produce a luxuriant leafwork. Halfway between abstract ornament and figurative scenes are the dragons with heads designed in rich detail and bodies that end in severely composed ribbon ornament (an outstanding example ca bi found on the caravanserai of Karatay-Han). Katharina Otto-Dor? ats in them the symbols of a magic defence against evil, which she.lsc believed to be the meaning of the double-headed griffin, the emblt' o the Seljuks. Between the austere and stylized griffin of Konia (fig 13 and the decorative silhouette design of the griffin from Divrigi lie 01 finely differentiated variants developed by Seljuk artists. Figures were used to decorate the walls of the towns. The rar. 0 presentation can be gathered from the reliefs and sculptures from Kiiia which are preserved in the Seljuk Ince-Minareli madrasah, now convjtei into a museumfighting animals, zoomorphic symbols, double-h< let griffins, lions, creatures of fable. In the relief depicting the giie; (fig. 7) a subject drawn from antiquity is combined with the at aij Greek postures of knee-runners, Turkish pigtails and the Islamic ira arabesques in the ornament on the crown. This relief inevitably r ail the plastic decoration of the French churches of pilgrimage, an abet ation that is perhaps not as baseless as it might seem. For the verlirs Crusade, in 1097, led through Anatolia, and those that followers' crossed some part of the territory of the Seljuks of Rum.

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