175 meanings: the scientific and the journalese. Scientific streamlining refers to aerodynamic efficiency and the decrease of air resistance; so that it can only be properly applied to objects normally in motion at speed. It is generally achieved by the smoothing away of angles and protuberances, the pouring of one surface into another in accordance with certain formulae. Journalese streamlining describes an article which is simple and sleek in design although its function may have no reference to aerodynamics or air resistance. Such design applied to stationary and other objects offers eye appeal without resorting to elaborate deco ration, and its natural simplicity and flowing surfaces leave no projections to collect dust and dirt. Although the distinction is seldom made, it is scientific rather than journalese streamlining that gives more accurate expression to the aims of the new designs for transport described in this article. The old method of designing an article was to make it as you pleased. Its comparative efficiency, its pleasant (or otherwise) appearance, was a matter of personal taste or tradition. There was no other criterion. The idea of looking at an article objectively, studying it as a problem of several parts, to be worked out without reference to the printed answers in the back of the book, is an entirely modern idea, brought into being by modern industrial conditions. Every year in the last half century has seen one back ward nation after another catching up. Competition is no longer between one firm and another in the same city; it is between state and state, civilization and civilization. Such intensity of competition has forced the pace of production. Physical speed has become a necessity, and to achieve and maintain it there is only one method the elimination of the unessential. To-day this elimination can no longer be carried out, as it was in the eighteenth century, at the cost of human life. It must be achieved at the cost of human ingenuity. A new Industrial Revolution is taking place in our time which will reverse the balance of the old. Speed to-day is brought about by the fining down of everything ponderous, the clearing away of all resistant elements. The designer's business is to discover and get rid of whatin waris known as friction; that which throws the plan of operations out of true, causing congestion at one point and at another leaving a too- progressive unit stranded without support. Streamlining is an engineer's term, because to-day the designer is an engineer. He is no longer an artistic purveyor of petty afterthoughts, but an engineer given The locomotive designed by Raymond Loewy in co-operation with the engineering department of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. The changes made in this design from the standard lines reduced wind resistance from 800 h.p. to 600 h.p.representing a saving, at the maximum speeds of 90 to 100 m.p.h., of nearly 300 h.p. Raymond Loewy's design for the long-distance buses of the Grey hound Lines. Passengers are carried high, with an extended view, while the luggage is packed underneath. The launching of the Princess Anne, superstructure, as yet incomplete. The photograph shows the THE WORD STREAMLINE HAS DEVELOPED TWO DISTINCT

Industrial Arts en | 1936 | | page 15