meanings: the scientific and the journalese. Scientific
streamlining refers to aerodynamic efficiency and the
decrease of air resistance; so that it can only be
properly applied to objects normally in motion at
speed. It is generally achieved by the smoothing away
of angles and protuberances, the pouring of one surface
into another in accordance with certain formulae.
Journalese streamlining describes an article which is
simple and sleek in design although its function may
have no reference to aerodynamics or air resistance.
Such design applied to stationary and other objects
offers eye appeal without resorting to elaborate deco
ration, and its natural simplicity and flowing surfaces
leave no projections to collect dust and dirt.
Although the distinction is seldom made, it is scientific
rather than journalese streamlining that gives more
accurate expression to the aims of the new designs for
transport described in this article.
The old method of designing an article was to make it
as you pleased. Its comparative efficiency, its pleasant
(or otherwise) appearance, was a matter of personal
taste or tradition. There was no other criterion. The
idea of looking at an article objectively, studying it as
a problem of several parts, to be worked out without
reference to the printed answers in the back of the
book, is an entirely modern idea, brought into being
by modern industrial conditions.
Every year in the last half century has seen one back
ward nation after another catching up. Competition is
no longer between one firm and another in the same
city; it is between state and state, civilization and
Such intensity of competition has forced the pace of
production. Physical speed has become a necessity,
and to achieve and maintain it there is only one method
the elimination of the unessential.
To-day this elimination can no longer be carried out, as
it was in the eighteenth century, at the cost of human
life. It must be achieved at the cost of human ingenuity.
A new Industrial Revolution is taking place in our
time which will reverse the balance of the old.
Speed to-day is brought about by the fining down of
everything ponderous, the clearing away of all resistant
elements. The designer's business is to discover and
get rid of whatin waris known as friction; that
which throws the plan of operations out of true, causing
congestion at one point and at another leaving a too-
progressive unit stranded without support.
Streamlining is an engineer's term, because to-day the
designer is an engineer. He is no longer an artistic
purveyor of petty afterthoughts, but an engineer given
The locomotive designed by Raymond Loewy in co-operation with
the engineering department of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. The
changes made in this design from the standard lines reduced wind
resistance from 800 h.p. to 600 h.p.representing a saving, at the
maximum speeds of 90 to 100 m.p.h., of nearly 300 h.p.
Raymond Loewy's design for the long-distance buses of the Grey
hound Lines. Passengers are carried high, with an extended view,
while the luggage is packed underneath.
The launching of the Princess Anne,
superstructure, as yet incomplete.
The photograph shows the
THE WORD STREAMLINE HAS DEVELOPED TWO DISTINCT