fixed specifications and working out his creations by
formulae which provide a demonstrably correct answer
to the problems alike of function and appearance which
he is called on to solve.
His specifications may insist that he shall retain in his
new design certain traditional forms.
They may insist that he shall build his new creation on
to an existing standard. This is illustrated in the
designs for the locomotive and the ferry boat described
below. The Stream-lined design had to be built to the
standard Class K4s Pacific type locomotive of the
Pennsylvania Railroad Company. In the latter, the
superstructure only was included in the specifications
A designer's instructions to-day will always insist
whatever the producton the utmost possible pro
vision for human safety and comfort.
Finally, the manufacturer has been forced to realize
that, apart from technical specifications, he must leave
the designer a free hand. Appearances count to-day
in cash. The designer has always known this but
hitherto his arguments have been dismissed as un
practical, and himself as a dreamer.
Now economics have come to his support. And, like
Joseph, his feet have been loosed from the stocks, and
An electric locomotive, also designed by Raymond Loewy in co-opera
tion with the Pennsylvania Railroad's engineering department.
Fifty-seven locomotives of this type are in operation on the electrified
lines between New York and Washington.
Luggage is far more easily handled en route when carried below
instead of on the roof. One of the practical features of the new
Inside the bus are individually adjustable seats, with correctly sloped
arm rests, ample knee space, tube lighting.