an inert enclosing wall, pierced with holes for light, and with a roof quietly resting on it like a lid gave place to the thought of a structure which should be continuous throughout, and energetic in every part." This is equally true of those astonishing pieces of architectural engineering which have been built since the middle of last century and of which the Galerie des Machines by Cottancin and Dutert was a typical example. In fact,if there wasarevival of Gothic in the 19th century, its truest manifestations were in buildings of this type. Compare St. Pancras Station with St. Pancras Hotel for true and false 19th century Gothic. The feature by which we distinguish the various periods of mediaeval Gothic is the windowlancet, rayonnant, decorated and so on. The importance of glass to the mediaeval architect cannot be overem phasised, but it fades almost to insignificance beside its importance to the mode,rn engineer-architect. Iron or steel construction, in fact, immediately con notes glass. Paxton, the designer of the Crystal Palace, coined the term "ferro-vitreous" to describe this type of construction, and in the Crystal Palace he popularised it to an extent that has only lately been appreciated. And ferro-vitreous construction, as demonstrated in the Crystal Palace, the Galerie des Machines, the Bauhaus by Gropius, Corbusier's Cite de Refuge and Immeuble Clarte, and, to take home- lierexamples, in King'sCrossandPaddington Stations, is, if not a direct descendant, at least a collateral of the humble greenhouse. At the beginning of the 19th century two significant innovations occurred; one was the introduction of iron frame construction and the other the introduc tion of the glazed roof in the conservatory. The latter had the more immediate effect. Indeed there has hardly been any swifter architectural transition than took place in the development from the solidly built, opaque-roofed orangery oftheendofthe 18th century to the lightly framed glass structure as represented in Paxton's Great Conservatory at Chatsworth and Decimus Burton's Palm House at Kew. The early 19th-century conservatories soon demon strated the possibilities of glass as a building material. They also led to an interest in the properties of sun light apart from illumination, and various crude imitations of Vita Glass and Calorex (heat-resisting glass) were attempted by horticulturists and botanists who realised that there were other qualities in glass besides its transparency. Their novel feature was, of course, the glass roof, and this was soon repeated in arcades, pavilions, domes and, most important of all, in the great terminal stations which began to be built in the middle of the century. In these glass and iron were formidably and often impressively united. A later development was in the utilisation of glass in the roofs of industrial buildings where good natural illumination is not only

Industrial Arts en | 1936 | | page 34