economically desirable but conducive to efficiency and furthermore much pleasanter to the workmen. Since direct sunlight might interfere with the process of manufacture and the comfort of the workmen the roofing is arranged on the "North Light" system, the roof glazing being faced to the north at an angle according to the latitudein England about 60° to the horizontal. A further development necessitated by weather conditions and problems of upkeep was the invention of patent glazing. When frame construction came to be applied to buildings of what might be called an architectural rather than an engineering typeto office buildings, blocks of flats, civic buildings, large stores and so on the increased surface available for glazing, though not immediately made use of, gradually became less and less masked with false masonry. A by-product of the great office block was the standard metal-frame window, though this did not occur until after the War, and the combination of this adaptable unit and the fluidity of fenestration allowed by frame con struction led to that vertical or horizontal window- pattern emphasis so much the fashion a short time ago, particularly in Germany. The arrangement of the fenestration in these large buildings was often their only design feature. A later development was to place the windows in advance of the wall face and so obtain increased floor space, a considerable gain thus being made in buildings of many floors. Plateglass became commercially possible abouta hun dred years ago. Previouslyto this it was an expensive luxury to be found in the most palatial houses only. The prosperity of West-End shops in the early part of last century together with a demand for windows unobstructed by numerous glazing bars led to it being used in their windows, and the increased demand for it, superior methods of making it and the removal of the duties on glass soon led to plate becoming indispensable in the better class shop. One result of this was what is now a commonplace of shopping centresstreets with their ground floors consisting of a series of frames containing plate glass supporting with apparent inadequacy a superstruc ture of heavily stylistic masonry. The desire of business-men to array their buildings in historic and exotic stylesRenaissance, Tudor, Flemish Gothic, Californian, Scottish Baronial, Queen Anneall these may be seen flagrantly demonstrated in the centre of London, though there is no need to name any namesis at last beginning to be sicklied o'er with the pale cast of second thoughts. Style regarded as fancy dress they now see to be wasteful, inefficient, false and unattractive. The result of this reformation may not yet be strikingly apparent here in England, though Peter Jones' new store in Sloane Square, Simpson's in Piccadilly and Messrs. Boots' new building in Stamford Street give an impressive indication ofwhat is happening in English commercial

Industrial Arts en | 1936 | | page 35