(10) A staircase in the Glass House, Budapest, by Ludwig Kozma, with treads and risers constructed in glass. (II) The Shocken Store at Chemnitz by Erich Mendelsohn. The 'ribbon' window. buildings, but abroad there is a considerable body of examples of a direct and logical application of modern building methods and materials to the particular problems of the large store. Mendelssohn's various shops, the Magasins Auspach by Charles Siclis and Polak, the Beehive Store by Dudok and the Coopera tive de Volharding by J. W. E. Buys will be readily called to mind. The remarkable feature of these is their large glazed surfaces. No longer is the window- area more or less confined to the ground floor but continuous on all floors. Apart from the increased illumination and floorspace thus secured, the saving of time in building and thus of expense, the sheerer and slicker finish, the crisper and cleaner design, various incidental advantages are obtained, such as facility of upkeep and cleaning and the use of all voids in the facade, when illuminated at night, as an exterior design factor and for display and advertise ment. What has occurred in shops has also occurred, though naturally to a modified extent, since display is no longer desired, in factories, offices, warehouses, hospitals, houses, and indeed in all types of buildings except those whose purpose demands either solid construction or for some reason, as in theatres and cinemas, the elimination of light. Thus the com pletely glazed wall is to be seen in the Tabakfabrik Van Nelle at Rotterdam by J. A. Brinkmann and L. C. van der Vlugt, the Bauhaus at Dessau by Walter Gropius, the Daily Express Building by Ellis and Clarke, the Messehaus at Prague by Oldrich TyII, the Immeuble Clarte' at Geneva by Corbusier, the swim ming bath by Mallet-Stevens, the Pressa Restaurant at Cologne, the Open-Air Schools at Suresnes by Beaudouin and Lods, the Glass and Steel Church at Cologne by Otto Bartning, and so onalmost every type of building has been successful built in glass and one or other of the alternative frame constructions. Messrs. Ellisand Clarke's Daily Express Building shows glass used not for its property of transparence or translucence but for its qualities as a coloured opaque facing material. Coloured polished opal as a facing material has a number of advantages which are increasingly recommending it to the architect. Like all glass it presents a smooth, clean and hard surface. It is independent of colour limitations. It is procur able in accurately standardized units and thus admits of ready fixing and easy replacement. It is unsympa thetic to applied ornament and therefore an excel lent corrective to designers, and in the finished building it provides a glossy lightness which does not belie the structure and which gives a pleasant, clean airiness to the street in telling contrast to the pon- derousness of the average mason ry-ridden 'ed ifice. It is, above all, durableextremely so in its tough ened variety. When, as is bound to happen, more and more buildings have their f^ades glazed and faced with glass in one form or another, the differ ina

Industrial Arts en | 1936 | | page 37