of each piece was made plain, but simple enough to be reproduced economically at a reasonable price. The king was symbolized by a crown; the queen by a coronet; the bishop by a mitre; and so forth. The knight's heads were copied faithfully from the horses of the Elgin marbles, and the pawn was designed to re present the masonic emblem of a square and compasses. The base of each piece represented a cushion, on which the emblems might rest. But stems of different heights were also introduced between the cushion and the emblem as a concession to the conventional method of identifying the pieces. Mr. Howard Staunton, one of the famous exponents of the English school of chess, was so struck by the improvement which these designs introduced, that he allowed them to be called by his name, and gave per mission to use a facsimile of his signature on every box of pieces. The soundness of the design ensured it an immediate commercial success. It became, within a few years, not only the standard design for this country, but the standard design wherever the European form of the game was played. Reproduction on a quantity basis showed the need for only slight modifications another tribute to the thought of the original designer. The frills and beads were slightly strengthened, the knights' ears were set farther back, and the collar of the pawn at a rather less acute angle. These modifications were simply introduced to avoid the danger of break ages in transit and in use. There are always people who see a degradation in the quantity production of any article previously made by hand, or the commercial success of a cheapened line. For them a few "quaint" chessmen are still turned out, but as H. R. J. Murraythe notable authority on chess historyremarks, there are few chess players to-day Troru Hie/llfouso MS l Q_ B Kh Trom M5 Cotton, Cleop.Rix Troru MS Dresden 0/59 Vronz MS. Taris f. fr. I \Jt> Troru MS Torence,Rjcc. o.n.SO.MJI. Examples of Chessmen from MSS. who would care to use anything but the Staunton chessmen. The universal adoption of a standard design has done more for the game than simply providing its devotees with an agreeable instrument of play. The rapid popularization of the game from the late eighteenth century onwards must have been due in some part at least to the simplification of play follow ing a more easily identifiable set of pieces. The many books of chess problems published since that period also owe much to the use of the symbols first selected by John Jaques. One has only to com pare the symbols used to illustrate any modern chess problem with those of the pre-Staunton chessmen days to see the advantages of clarity which have been gained. Blindfold chessplay was known in the eleventh century, but it was not until the first thirty years of the nine teenth century that as many as seven or eight games were first played unseen at once. To-day, 27 or 28 games, played unseen and simultaneously are not unknown. There is no doubt that here, also, the standardization of the pieces throughout the European- chess playing world must have helped to develop the game. A contribution to the curiosities of chess has also been provided by the firm of John Jaques Son, Ltd., in the design and production of a set of chessmen for the Queen's Doll's House, perfectly carried out to scale, with a king of inch in height to a pawn of inch. Heraldry has shown less than its usual ingenuity in devising designs for Chess. The Rook, which is embodied in various English crests, such as Rookwood, seems to have little con nection with its counterpart on the board.

Industrial Arts en | 1936 | | page 45