that this attack upon the emotions of the public has lost rather than gained ground. The third aspect of the realistic outlook is a keener sense of the utilitarian values of design. In this respect advertising has been evidently influenced by the example of architects and others imbued with the modern principle of fitness to purpose." So-called functionalism has become one of the mainstays of many forms of design. In effect this means that any object is the better for being designed in the simplest series of external surfaces possible and with a close visual relation with fundamental ideas. The stream-lined train is a case in point. A functional window display is one where useless decoration is eliminated and the goods themselves provide the major part of the design attraction. Most redesigned packages show this tendency strongly. Within its own limits packaging displays much more of an architectural, i.e., dimensional, than decorative character. The designer of packages seems to share the modern architect's distaste for or inability to conceive ornament. So strongly marked has this become that decoration has almost become identified with inefficiency. Anything artisticis anathema even to artists, though the adjective is, of course, used in a special sense. Design conceived in present-day terms becomes an attribute of the intelligence rather than the hand. To refer to packaging again, because this is the department of publicity where direct comparison of results as between old and new methods is easily made, the improvement apparent in simpli fication is often accompanied by a decisive increase in sales which indicates that the public receives a definite impression from efficient redesign. The same principle has been successfully applied to layout. The British Daily Expressamong newspapers, is an example of what can be achieved by the application of intelligence to typo graphy. A sense of proportion in which size, whether of text or illustration is wittily relevant to meaning, dramatic value or importance of the subject matter ensures that the paper is read. This is a real tour deforce in fitness for purpose whereby typography ceases to be only a matter of front page headlines and is woven pleasantly into the whole of the contents. It might be supposed that an effort of this kind would have an influence on Press advertising, but this is not the case. The con ditions are very different for one thing. A policy of deliberate contrast is often used so as to dissociate the advertisement as far as possible from the editorial matter. Functional limitations

Modern Publicity en | 1937 | | page 12