that this attack upon the emotions of the public has lost rather
than gained ground.
The third aspect of the realistic outlook is a keener sense of the
utilitarian values of design. In this respect advertising has been
evidently influenced by the example of architects and others
imbued with the modern principle of fitness to purpose."
So-called functionalism has become one of the mainstays of
many forms of design. In effect this means that any object is the
better for being designed in the simplest series of external surfaces
possible and with a close visual relation with fundamental ideas.
The stream-lined train is a case in point. A functional window
display is one where useless decoration is eliminated and the goods
themselves provide the major part of the design attraction. Most
redesigned packages show this tendency strongly. Within its own
limits packaging displays much more of an architectural, i.e.,
dimensional, than decorative character. The designer of packages
seems to share the modern architect's distaste for or inability to
So strongly marked has this become that decoration has almost
become identified with inefficiency. Anything artisticis
anathema even to artists, though the adjective is, of course, used
in a special sense. Design conceived in present-day terms
becomes an attribute of the intelligence rather than the hand.
To refer to packaging again, because this is the department of
publicity where direct comparison of results as between old and
new methods is easily made, the improvement apparent in simpli
fication is often accompanied by a decisive increase in sales which
indicates that the public receives a definite impression from
The same principle has been successfully applied to layout.
The British Daily Expressamong newspapers, is an example of
what can be achieved by the application of intelligence to typo
graphy. A sense of proportion in which size, whether of text or
illustration is wittily relevant to meaning, dramatic value or
importance of the subject matter ensures that the paper is read.
This is a real tour deforce in fitness for purpose whereby typography
ceases to be only a matter of front page headlines and is woven
pleasantly into the whole of the contents.
It might be supposed that an effort of this kind would have an
influence on Press advertising, but this is not the case. The con
ditions are very different for one thing. A policy of deliberate
contrast is often used so as to dissociate the advertisement as far
as possible from the editorial matter. Functional limitations